CHANGE OF VOICE # ACTIVE VOICE & PASSIVE VOICE:
—- Prepared by Brojen Das
VOICE CHANGE ACTIVE VOICE & PASSIVE VOICE:
WHAT IS VOICE?
Voice is the form of the verb which always shows whether the subject acts or is acted upon.
There are two kinds of voices:-
When the subject of the sentence is the ‘actor’, the verb is Active.
He plays football.
when the subject of the sentence is acted upon, the verb is passive.
Football is played by him.
Rules for changing the active voice into the passive:-
- In the active voice, the object becomes the subject in the Passive voice.
- In active voice, the subject becomes the object in the passive voice.
- A helping verb is used according to tenses.
- The main verb is changed into the past participle form of the verb(3rd form).
- The preposition ‘by’ is placed after the past participle form of the verb. ( The preposition ‘ by’ is not always used)
- In the case of two objects, the personal object is changed into a subject and the other object remains as an object.
- At first, find out the object of the verb by asking ‘ What'(inanimate object) or ‘Whom'(person), then go for performing the change of voice.
- Personal pronouns are to be changed into objective cases.
I —– me
She —- her
- After modal verbs ‘ be’ is generally placed.
Object+ modal verb+ be+ v3.
- If there is an ‘ing'(verb+ing) ending in any kind of continuous tenses, ‘being’ is generally placed.
Object+ am /is/are/was/were/be+ being+v3.
- In case of any perfect tenses ‘been’ is generally used after ‘have’ or ‘has’ or ‘had’ in passive voices.
1) VOICE CHANGE WITH AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES:
( PRESENT TENSE)
- I play football every day. (Active voice)
Football is played by me every day. ( passive voice)
- she is reading a book.
A book is being read by her.
- I have helped her.
she has been helped by me.
( PAST TENSE )
- She obeyed me.
I was obeyed by her.
- They were riding cycles.
Cycles were being ridden by them.
3 . she had cut her finger.
Her finger had been cut by her.
- I shall do it.
It will be done by me.
- He will be doing the work.
The work will be being done by him.
- He will have played cricket.
Cricket will have been played by him.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH NEGATIVE SENTENCE:
****(Keep in mind one thing….In Negative sentences, ‘not’ has to be put after the helping verb)
- He does not help me.
I am not helped by him.
- He did not break the glass.
The glass was not broken by him.
- He has not done the work.
The work has not been done by him.
- He will not buy pen.
pen will not be bought by him.
- VOICE CHANGE WITH INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES:
Rule: Interrogative sentence? (A.v)
Make it an Assertive sentence. (A.v)
Change the voice. (P.v)
Again make it an Interrogative sentence? (P.v)
- Do you like me? ( interrogative)
You like me. (It is changed into assertive)
I am liked by you. (passive is done)
Am I liked by you? (Again it is made interrogative)
2.Did you help me?
You helped me.
I was helped by you.
Was I helped by you? ( Main Answer)
- Have you killed the tiger?
you have killed the tiger.
The tiger has been killed by you.
Has the tiger been killed by you? (Answer)
4.Shall I do it?
I shall do it.
It will be done by me.
Will it be done by me? (Answer)
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH IMPERATIVE SENTENCES:
1.Let + object+ be+ 3rd form of verb.
*****( Let is generally used if an object is available in the active voice in imperative sentences)
2.You are requested to +v1…..(if the statement denotes any request)
3.You are ordered/commanded to+v1 ……(if the statement denotes any kind of order or command)
4.you are advised to+v1 …..( If the statement denotes any advice)
1.Open the book.
Let the book be opened. (Here, the sentence begins with ‘Let’ because we are having here the object ‘the book’)
- please come here.
you are requested to come here.
you are ordered to stand up.
you are advised to be honest.
- VOICE CHANGE WITH DOUBLE OBJECTS:
( See rule no-6)
1.He gave me a pen.
I was given a pen by him.
2.He has gifted me a book.
I have been gifted a book by him.
3.I shall give you a nice phone.
You will be given a nice phone by me.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH PHRASAL VERBS:
1.He laughed at me.
I was laughed at by him.
2 He listens to our teacher.
Our teacher is listened to by her.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH INFINITIVES:
*****(Here ‘ be’ is to be added after ‘to’; then the main verb is to be changed into the past participle form or 3rd form)
1.I have to do it.
It has to be done by me.
2.We are to buy a car.
A car is to be bought by us.
3.There is no time to waste.
There is no time to be wasted.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH INDEFINITE PRONOUNS:
( Indefinite pronouns such as all, another, any, anybody, anything, each, everybody/everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody/someone must be omitted in the passive voice)
- Someone snatched my gold chain.
Gold chain was snatched. ( by someone is omitted)
- someone stole my cycle.
My cycle was stolen.
3.One can do this easily.
This can be done easily.
- VOICE CHANGE WITH QUASI PASSIVE VOICE:
1.Honey tastes sweet.
Honey is sweet when it is tasted.
2.The book reads interesting.
The book is interesting when it is read.
3.The rose smells sweet.
The rose is sweet when it is smelt.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH MODAL VERBS:
( Can, Could, May, Might, Must, ought to, etc)
1.I can solve the sum.
The sum can be solved by me.
2.May I do this?
May this be done by me?
3.You ought to do this.
This ought to be done by you.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH WH QUESTIONS:
(Here’ ‘Who’ changes into ‘Whom’ and ‘Whom’ changes into ‘Who’)
*** (The way the Interrogative sentence has been performed in the same it has to be performed but W.H word has to be placed at the very beginning of the sentence).
- Who killed the dog?
By whom was the dog killed?
- Whom do you like most?
Who is liked by you most?
- Why did the teacher beat you?
Why were you beaten by the teacher?
- How did you open the door?
How was the door opened by you?
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH INTRANSITIVE VERBS WITH COGNATE OBJECTS:
CHANGE OF VOICE
- He dreamt a horrible dream.
A horrible dream was dreamt by him.
- He has fought a brave fight.
A brave fight has been fought by him.
- The man slept a sound sleep.
A sound sleep was slept by the man.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH FACTITIVE OBJECTS:
- We made him the captain.
He was made captain by us. (Correct)
the captain was made him by us. (Incorrect)
- They made me king.
I was made king by them.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH REFLEXIVE OBJECT:
1 The girl cut herself.
The girl was cut by herself.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH BARE INFINITIVES:
****( Bare infinitive is an infinitive used without ‘ to’ after certain verbs like bid, let, make, see, hear, need, dare, watch,h, etc.)
- I saw him open the book.
He was seen to open the book by me.
- We heard him cry in the room.
He was heard to cry in the room by us.
- I made the boy understand well.
The boy was made to understand well by me.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH GERUNDS:
- I saw the crying of my mother.
I saw my mother being cried.
- We noticed the rising of the Sun.
We noticed the sun being risen.
- CHANGE OF VOICE :VERB WITHOUT A COMPLIMENT:
- The house is building.
The house is being built.
- The goat is milking.
The goat is being milked.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH COMPLEX SENTENCES:
- They hope that they can do the work on time.
It is hoped that the work can be done on time.
- You know that Columbus discovered America.
it is known to us that America was discovered by Columbus.
- CHANGE OF VOICE WITH APPROPRIATE PREPOSITION.
- Her behaviour shocked me.
I was shocked at her behaviour.
- You need a shave.
A shave is needed for you.
- This pleased Mani.
Mani was pleased with this.
- Light filled the dining room.
The dining room was filled with light.
- The tragedies of Shakespeare interest me.
I am interested in the tragedies of Shakespeare