Sons and Lovers Questions and Answers

Sons and Lovers Questions and Answers

Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence.


1 . Comment on the relationship between Paul and his mother.


The relationship between Gertrude Morel and her son, Paul, is something that is shown to be incredibly close and, in some ways, a bit too intense. Gertrude Morel, having fallen out of love with her working-class husband, clearly places her hopes on Paul and comes to love him with such an intensity that it makes it difficult for him to form relationships with other women. Gertrude is a character who came from the middle-classes, but married beneath her to Walter Morel, a member of the working class. This is something that she bitterly regrets, and she desperately hopes that Paul can make a future for himself that will allow him to escape a hopeless future of a working class miner. Note how she thinks of Paul in the following quote, taken from Part I, Chapter 4:


All day long, as she cleaned the house, she thought of him. He was in London: he would do well. Almost, he was like her knight who wore her favour in the battle.


The comparison to a knight wearing her favour is particularly apt. It perfectly captures the way in which she pins all of her hopes on her sons, and then on Paul alone. This quote also indicates the obsessive nature of her love and care as she thinks of nothing else except her son “all day long.” Her commitment to and love of her son is so strong that she has to be helped to die by Paul, as he gives her an overdose of morphine to finally let her embrace death.


2 . How does Sons and Lovers display Lawrence’s preoccupation with “consciousness” as an important concept in modernist novels?


In Sons and Lovers, D. H. Lawrence displays his preoccupation with consciousness through Paul. Paul is the main character of the story; the novel centers on him and his tumultuous thoughts and feelings. By making brooding Paul his protagonist, Lawrence demonstrates how consciousness is an important concept in modernist novels.


For modernists, rational and detached discourse is set aside in favor of deep introspection. Modernists tended to zoom in on a person’s inner life. They spotlighted their interior realm and showed how their subjective awareness could govern their relationship to the world. What propels Paul and leads him to make the choices he does is not objective logic but the inner workings of his mind.


Lawrence describes the impact that Miriam’s physical affection has on Paul as “almost torture.” Paul is not suffering outward torture. It’s not torture that would be plainly visible to the public. The torture is inward. When Paul is with Miriam, Lawrence says his “consciousness seemed to split.” This division leads to an “internecine battle.” As with the near-torture, the battle takes place on an abstract, interior level.


The conflict within Paul determines how he views his art, family, and romantic partners. Besides Miriam, Paul’s inner disquiet impacts his relationship with Clara and his mom, Mrs. Morel. Paul is not the only character whose consciousness greatly influences their outlook. Mrs. Morel, too, is heavily impacted by her interior realm. It shapes how she treats Paul and Miriam.


3 .How one can consider Sons and Lovers a psychological novel?


A psychological novel is one in which the writer explores the minds of the characters, focusing on their motivations and inner conflicts. Before D. H. Lawrence’s generation, the psychological novel was not well established in England, as it was in France or Russia. However, a few novelists, such as Richardson, George Eliot, and even Trollope, regularly give the reader an insight into the mental landscapes and processes of their characters, as Lawrence does in Sons and Lovers.


Perhaps the greatest of all psychological novelists was Dostoevsky, for whom Lawrence always expressed a strong dislike. However, recent critics have noticed a strong affinity between the two. In Dostoevsky and English Modernism 1900–1930, Peter Kaye writes,


Lawrence traveled a distinctively Dostoevskian path after the publication of Sons and Lovers, which moved him away from the English tradition of the novel as biography, the story of individual lives largely immune from metaphysical debate and cultural crisis.


This “Dostoevskian path” is particularly evident in the presentation of Paul’s inner conflict in his relationships with Miriam, Clara, and his mother. For instance, Lawrence describes how Paul reacts to physical contact with Miriam when she links arms with him as they walk together.


With Miriam he was always on the high plane of abstraction, when his natural fire of love was transmitted into the fine stream of thought. She would have it so. If he were jolly and, as she put it, flippant, she waited till he came back to her, till the change had taken place in him again, and he was wrestling with his own soul, frowning, passionate in his desire for understanding. And in this passion for understanding her soul lay close to his; she had him all to herself. But he must be made abstract first.


Such passages as this are similar to, if not actually influenced by, the works of Dostoevsky and other explicitly psychological European writers. Paul is not presented as a likeable young hero in the tradition of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century English novel, but as something far closer to the intense, complex protagonist characteristic of Russian fiction.


4 . Discuss Sons and Lovers as a bildungsroman.


To answer this question, the first thing we need to do is define what a bildungsroman is. In a nutshell, it is a story that deals with its protagonist’s formative years and the issues which shape them into become becoming the adult that they later become. One of the characteristics of a bildungsroman is that it has to do what the character’s moral development which, in this case, is stunted by the protagonist’s mother.


Mrs. Morel had an unhappy marriage and relied on her sons, to an unhealthy degree, for her happiness. In the aftermath of her son William’s death, she fixates on her second son, Paul, whose growth, or lack thereof, we see in the story of Sons and Lovers.


In most cases, coming of age means outgrowing the need for one’s parents to a certain extent, but this proves to be problematic for Paul Morel. Despite the fact that he falls in love with Miriam Leivers, he allows his mother’s disapproval of her to be a major factor in their relationship.


He loves his mother more than he ever allows himself to love any woman, which ultimately results in him ending up completely alone in the aftermath of his mother’s death. The closest he ever comes to real passion is with Clara, a married woman who refuses to leave her husband and therefore never truly has the potential to drive a wedge between Paul and his mother.


I would argue that as a bildungsroman, Sons and Lovers fails because it is the portrayal of a man who fails to grow up.


5 . In Sons and Lovers, what are the many different symbols evoked by flowers? How do flowers figure differently in the fates of the various characters?


Sons and Lovers was a provocative novel when it was first published in 1913, telling the story of a young, burgeoning artist named Paul Morel who is torn between an Oedipal love for his mother and a lust for two other women.


As such, Lawrence uses flowers symbolically throughout the novel to convey concepts such as individuality, vitality, adoration, femininity, womanhood, and female sexuality. Moreover, he sometimes refers to women as flowers or makes comparisons between them. Rather than use flowers as complimentary depictions of women, however, he often views them as mere objects of adornment.


Two cogent yet differing examples of how he uses flowers are with his first love, Miriam, and his second love, Clara. Miriam’s interactions with patches of maiden-blush roses and, later, daffodils are one of deference, respect, and appreciation, which mirrors her love of Paul. But Paul seems to despise her for this love of and her relationship with flowers, almost as if she’s cheating on him with them. He feels suffocated by her adoration, and thus the flowers come to symbolize their love’s terminus.


Clara, on the other hand, is put off by a flower’s propensity to be picked, to wilt and to die. She similarly does not want to be picked by a man and then left to wilt. She wants to remain strong like a flower in isolation, not something to be adored—the opposite of Miriam—a point that Paul ironically argues with her. This view is especially prominent during her period of chastity following her split with her husband. However, once Clara’s sexuality is reignited later in the story, she graciously accepts a flower from Paul to wear on her jacket.


6 . Make a comparison and a contrast between Dr. Aziz in A Passage to India and Paul Morel in Sons and Lovers.


The characters of Dr. Aziz in A Passage to India and Paul Morel in Sons and Lovers have some similarities but more differences. Both are young men with pleasant personalities who come to realize that they are out of place in their own society. The numerous differences between them include their nationality and class status: Aziz is an Indian subject in the British colonial Indian “Raj,” while Morel is a white Englishman born and raised in England. As a physician, however, Aziz would have a higher class status than Morel, who comes from a working-class family. Religion is another difference, as Aziz is Muslim while Morel is Christian. The way they come to understand their outsider status is also different. In Aziz’s case, his efforts to interact with White English colonizers lead to disaster. Morel, however, learns about life through holding different jobs and having love affairs.


  1. M. Forster and D. H. Lawrence present young men who are struggling to find meaning in different parts of the British Empire. Forster’s novel takes place in the large British colony of India, where Aziz has achieved considerable success by becoming a doctor. Nevertheless, as a Muslim in a predominantly Hindu society and as an indigenous Indian in a European colony, he faces distinct obstacles. Forster makes this clear in Aziz’s terrible experience with the justice system, where a word from a White woman is enough to put him on trial. His illusions about England are shattered by his experience. For Morel, being a working-class man has inherent limitations but he comes to a deeper understanding of his own capabilities and limitations without the kind of ordeal that Aziz must endure.


  1. Discuss the importance of the title Sons and Lovers.


Devotees of psychoanalysis have had a veritable field day with Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence. At the heart of the story is an almost incestuous relationship between Gertrude Morel and her sons, Paul and William. It’s interesting to note that Lawrence originally intended the book to be entitled Paul Morel, but as he wanted to emphasize the strange, passionate vitality of the mother/son relationship he changed the title to Sons and Lovers.


Although there’s no sense—thank goodness—that any actual laws or social taboos are broken by Gertrude or her sons, there’s no doubt that theirs are more than just conventional mother/son relationships. Trapped in a loveless—and one must suppose, sexless—marriage, Gertrude needs to find an outlet for her passion; and she duly finds it in her sons.


In time-honored Freudian fashion, Paul comes to develop a pronounced Oedipal complex. He doesn’t simply treat Gertrude like a lover rather than a mother, he also resents his drunken, ignorant lout of a father, Walter, seeing him as a deadly rival. When Walter passes away, it’s notable that Paul immediately takes his place as head of the house. He is not so much a son as another husband, albeit a husband who deeply loves his wife/mother.


  1. Discuss Sons and Lovers as a modern novel.


Sons and Lovers is very much the modern novel par excellence in that it concentrates on the inner lives of its characters. Most of the main characters have rich, complicated inner lives that often challenge and undermine their outward social roles and identities.


Gertrude Morel, for instance, is expected by her drunken, boorish husband, Walter, to be a submissive housewife and to do as she’s told. But Gertrude’s not prepared to be submissive; she has a rich interior life that precludes her from fulfilling any traditional role that society may wish to assign her. Gertrude further undermines traditional gender roles by developing a deep, almost sexual passion for her sons, who themselves transgress what is considered acceptable by behaving toward their mother more like lovers than sons.


The radical suffragette Clara Dawes is another example of someone who defies social convention by following their subjective needs and desires. As well as being actively involved in politics, something still generally frowned upon for women in those days, she chooses to wear her own clothes and goes with a man who isn’t her husband.


Suffragettes were often subjected to the misogynist insult that they were more like men than women. In the character of Miriam, we have someone who actually comes right out and says that she wishes she were a man. Once again, we see the subversive nature of the subjective consciousness, how in giving free rein to one’s deepest, innermost desires and wishes it can transgress even the most rigid boundaries in this hidebound society.


9 .In Sons and Lovers, how is Paul Morel influenced as a youth by his family’s values?


A great place to investigate how Paul Morel is influenced by his mother is Chapter 4 of this text, which explores “The Young Life of Paul” and in particular the way that his mother influenced him. What is key to note is that Mrs. Morel herself came from the middle classes, and chose to marry a working class man. As a result, she despises so much about her husband and his life and the life that she is forced to lead because of her marriage. This class consciousness is something that she transmits to her children, but in addition she establishes such a strong bond with Paul that the rest of his life is dominated by the strength of his relationship with his mother. Note the following quote:


Not even the Mediterranean, which pulled at all his young man’s desire to travel, and at his poor man’s wonder at the glamorous south, could take him away when he might come home.


Here the narrator expresses the strength of Paul’s attachment to his mother. Not even the prospect or thought of foreign travel is enough of a temptation compared to the thought of going home and spending time with his mother. The text makes it clear therefore that Paul is massively influenced by his mother and the attachment that she creates between them. As the rest of the novel makes clear, this is something that impacts Paul as he struggles to make relationships with other women.


10 . Is the character Paul Morel in Sons and Lovers based on the life of the author, D.H. Lawrence?


The novel Sons and Lovers is one of the best examples of a genre that really came into its own in the early twentieth century—the autobiographical novel (other autobiographical novels of that period include Somerset Maugham’s Of Human Bondage and Joyce’s Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man).


Most of the characters, locations, and, to a certain extent, events are based on real life. Like Paul Morel’s mother, D.H. Lawrence’s mother was born into the middle classes, but married into the working classes. Similarly, Morel’s Father was essentially the same character as D.H. Lawrence—a working class Nottingham miner. From these and other similarities, the reader can presume that D. H. Lawrence based Morel on himself.


For example, like D. H. Lawrence, Morel has a closer relationship with his mother than his father, favoring intellectual pursuits over physical labor, and like Lawrence, Morel has an intimate relationship with a close friend of the family who in the story is called Miriam Leivers. The real life person who inspired Miriam is a woman named Jessie Chambers.


As D.H. Lawrence expert Harry T. Moore states,


The tormenting relationship of Lawrence and Jessie, which was to last for about a dozen years, became one of the principle theme of Sons and Lovers (1913), with Lawrence as Paul Morel and Jessie as Miriam Leivers.


In the aftermath of D.H. Lawrence’s death, Jessie wrote a book about her relationship with D.H. Lawrence called D. H Lawrence: A Personal Record.


11 . Describe the point of view of Sons and Lovers.


The point of view of this excellent text is third person omniscient, as the narrator has a god-like position that allows him to access the thoughts and emotions of all characters and he is not limited to a linear progression of time as he tells the story, zooming back and forth to give the reader important background information on various characters and situations before resuming with his narrative. However, what is interesting about the point of view is the way in which Lawrence initially tries to establish a narrator that is impartial and presents the action of the novel in an objective fashion. Although this is his aim, the narrator occasionally offers his own opinion on what is happening in the novel, offering the reader his views on the matter. Note how he does this in the first section of the novel, that focuses on Mrs. Morel’s life, when she considers that her life will be nothing but non-stop drudgery:


Sometimes life takes hold of one, carried the body along, accomplishes one’s history, and yet is not real, but leaves oneself as it were slurred over.


This remark represents an intrusion by the narrator, as he steps into the text at this point to offer his own view and opinion on what is happening. Throughout the text, therefore, the point of view is one that is easily recognised as third-person omniscient, but what is of interest is the extent to which the narrator is intrusive. Although an objective stance is mostly maintained, there are instances where the narrator will step in to offer his own opinion.


12 . In Sons and Lovers, how can the relationship between Paul and his mother be categorized?


The characters of Paul and Gertrude Morel in D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers are highly autobiographical. Lawrence, himself, had a relationship with his own mother which he mirrors in that of Paul and Gertrude.


Gertrude, who is a firm, strong-willed and intelligent woman is also a woman who feels dejected and unhappy with her own life. As a result, she vicariously lives through the lives of her children whom, as males, she considers to have been born for bigger and better things than herself.


The problem is that Gertrude has a tremendous amount of energy which rubs off on her children, making her smother them with her care and protection. This takes away from the normal balance that should exist between a mother and a child, where roles are delineated and boundaries are respected. The result is that Gertrude literally interrupts the normal emotional growth that Paul inevitably needs to go on his way to maturity.


If we were to label the relationship between Paul and Gertrude in psychological terminology, we could easily declare Paul as a man who suffers from Oedipus Complex. This Freudian concept suggests the uncanny affection for a parent of the opposite sex and the dislike for the parent of the same sex. Paul displays these emotions verbatim. He detests his father and seems to be in a sort of competition with him. The same thing happens later on in his life when he sees in Baxter a challenger and also a father figure. Back to his oedipal side, however, Paul’s passion and dependence on Gertrude borders on the inappropriate because of the obvious need that Paul has for his mother’s perennial presence, for her touch, and for her support.


Ironically, Gertrude suffers from the same problem because she obsesses over Paul, hates his girlfriends, and manipulates his emotions. The mutual dependence definitely makes their relationship hard to categorize under any “normal” relationship precisely because their synergism results in that none of them can move forward. In not so many words, the relationship between Paul and Gertrude is abnormal in that the need for each other’s presence is in no way indicative of a healthy or nurtured relationship. If anything, it represents a relationship that is enmeshed and amorphous. When Paul applies an extra dose of morphine to his mother at her deathbed he is not only trying to speed up her death, but he is finally opening the door to his freedom. That is how negatively dependent his life was to the life of his mother.


13 . What are D. H. Lawrence’s philosophy of life and views of civilization and society as expressed in Sons and Lovers?


One of D. H. Lawrence’s philosophies of life, present in his novel Sons and Lovers, concerns the effect of the modern, industrial age. The modern, industrial age has created imprisonment, physically, psychologically, and emotionally.


The imprisonment of the industrial age is first portrayed through the father, Walter Morel, who was a very handsome man full of potential but turns out to be a drunkard trapped in the low-income earnings of a miner in the industrial age because of his poor education. In fact, he hated books and “er canna see what there is i’ books, ter sit borin’ your nose in ’em for,” meaning he can’t see what’s so special about books that people bore, meaning bury, their noses inside of them (ch. VI). In contrast, the mother, Mrs. Morel is very educated and spends a great deal of time reading and writing and has instilled these values on her children. She expects her children to rise above the economic situation of their father, yet even Paul is brought down by the industrial age. His own imprisonment by the industrial age becomes evident when in chapter V, while looking at job advertisements in the newspaper, when questioned what he wanted to with a newspaper, the narrator comments, “Then he looked wistfully out of the window. Already he was a prisoner of industrialism. … He was being taken into bondage. His freedom in the beloved home valley was going now.”


But the bondage of the industrial age, according to Lawrence, did much more than limit education and job opportunities; it limited a person’s ability to grow as a person and placed strains on relationships, just as we see in Paul’s relationships and his inability to truly find himself.


14 . Comment upon the symbolism used in Sons and Lovers.


There are numerous symbols in Sons and Lovers. One of them is the swing at Willey Farm. It provides a kind of commentary on the status of Paul and Miriam’s relationship. Just like the swing, it has its ups and downs, moving back and forth, yet never moving forward. There is intense love and hate in this passionate relationship, but neither lasts for very long, just like the highs and lows of a turn on the swing. It’s also notable that Miriam cannot achieve the same heights on the swing as Paul. This would appear to be a reference to the difference in intensity between their respective sex drives.


The ash tree is used by Lawrence to symbolize the darker aspects of life. This is a world in which individual lives are susceptible to the elemental forces of nature. The ash tree is a constant reminder that, whatever we might think, as humans, we too are part of the natural world with all its indifference to death and suffering. And like the ash tree, the various characters in the book must somehow withstand the harshness of their environment if they’re to survive.


  1. Describe the imagery used in Sons and Lovers.


Lawrence is a writer who is justly famous for his vivid and lush images, and how he relates them to the characters he populates his work with. This novel is no exception. Consider the following powerful image that Lawrence uses to comment on the relationship between Paul, the novel’s protagonist, and Miriam, and how the strong images of nature are used to mirror the flowering and burgeoning of love and passion in these two characters:


It was very still. The tree was tall and straggling. It had thrown its briers over a hawthorn-bush, and its long streamers trailed thick, right down to the grass, splashing the darkness everywhere with great spilt stars, pure white. In bosses of ivory and in large splashed stars the roses gleamed on the darkness of foliage and stems and grass. Paul and Miriam stood close together, silent, and watched. Point after point the steady roses shone out to them, seeming to kindle something in their souls. The dusk came like smoke around, and still did not put out the roses.


Note how the flowers are compared to “great split stars, pure white,” in an unforgettable metaphor. The brightness of these white roses are so powerful that even the darkness is unable to extinguish their brilliance, and the way that their light shines out to Paul and Miriam, “seeming to kindle something in their souls,” strongly suggests that this powerful, vibrant flowering of nature that this image presents to the reader corresponds with a similar flowering or burgeoning of emotions and love in these two characters. Natural images are used to highlight the state of mind of the characters, which is a technique used frequently by Lawrence in his writing.


16 . How does the protagonist change after his mother’s death? What self-realization does he experience?



Paul heads in to a dark place after his mother dies.  That’s a bit of a pun, because Mrs. Morel represents the light of Paul’s life.  Without her, he is plunged into darkness.  


While she was alive, Paul and his mother were completely devoted to one another.  It’s way over the top, too.  Their relationship with each other actually prevents Paul from being able to commit to any woman in his life.  He is emotionally and romantically close to Clara and Miriam at different points in the novel, but he is unable to take the next step toward marriage.  Paul realizes that he simply loves his mother more than he loves these other women. 


When Mrs. Morel dies, though, Paul is left with an empty, hollow life.  He no longer has a reason to live.  He tries to fill that emptiness with meaningless relationships with women he doesn’t care about.  He drinks a lot, and does anything to numb the memory of his mother.  Miriam comes back into his life at this point and offers him a way out.  She proposes that they get married, but Paul just can’t commit.  Mrs. Morel, even in death, has more of his love.


Paul continues to decline and begins to contemplate suicide.  In his mind, death would reunite him with his mother and end his current suffering (whoa, that’s messed up).  Paul doesn’t commit suicide and realizes that he must attempt to live a good life and get over his mother and her death (even if only a little bit).  The sad thing though is that the reader isn’t sure if Paul is actually capable of doing that.  Will he be able to live life to the fullest based on his decision, or will he continue to sabotage future relationships because of his love and devotion to mom?


17 . Comment on Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers as a novel about human relationships.


I think that Sons and Lovers centers on the idea human relationships.  Initially, Lawrence depicts a social setting in which human relationships are seen as secondary to social advancement.  Through his characterizations, Lawrence displays a healthy disdain for such a condition.  For example, the human relationship between Gertrude and Walter is limited because of her predisposition to see him as “lower” than her in a social setting.  The depiction of social aspirations supplanting true emotional connection is one way in which the novel is about human relationships.  Lawrence is suggesting that the nuanced and subtle nature of human relationships cannot be preserved if conformist and external notions of the good drive the individual. For example, William climbs the social ladder and achieves a certain level of social acceptance, but is estranged from his family in the process.  Lily is superficial and phony, and William comes to detest this condition about her because it precludes any real semblance of a relationship. For Lawrence, the focus of human relationships can only be preserved if individuals shed social preconceptions.  Lawrence feels that the desire for social advancement prevents any real human relationships from forming.


It is in such a light that the premise of the novel explores human relationships. The relationship between husband and wife, and then sons and mother serve as the focus of the novel.  Lawrence is able to establish that part of human definition exists in how these emotional valences are navigated.  In a letter, he describes this as the essence of the novel:


But as her sons grow up she selects them as lovers — first the eldest, then the second. These sons are urged into life by their reciprocal love of their mother — urged on and on. But when they come to manhood, they can’t love, because their mother is the strongest power in their lives, and holds them.


The hold that love has over individuals and the desire to forge meaningful emotional bonds occupies the characters in the novel.  It becomes evident that the novel centers on human relationships.  The ending in which Paul is alone represents a world in which these human relationships are absent, something that Lawrence described as “the drift towards death.”  This gravitational pull can be avoided through human relationships and being able to understand their intricate nature. Lawrence sees the world in which individuals are “prisoners” to external forces as one where relationships are absent.  It is in this light where the novel placed a great emphasis on the human relationships that define what it means to be human.


18 . Comment on the ending of Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence.


The ending chapters of the novel Sons and Lovers by D H Lawrence.




Reading and literature are very subjective, so make sure you have read the book very closely and researched the background. That way, when you come to comment upon the final chapters you will have your opinions as well as commonly held ones and can back them up with quotes and sources.




It is ironic that just after Paul realises he may have great difficulty marrying while his dearly beloved,but sometimes resented, mother is still alive – he realises that she is going to die from a tumor. This has great pathos, and different readers will take away different things from it. For example, much has been made of the fact that Paul’s mother was a control freak who manipulated his life so he could never break free of her influence.


(Speaking personally here for a moment, I never got this from the novel, which I loved. What I saw at the end of the novel was a very contemporary and dangerous dilemma for Paul and his sister – out of deep love for his mother he eases,maybe even hastens her death by administering morphine. There is a very poignant moment where he is preparing some soup for her and wonders if it is right to give her, as it is prolonging a life that will become more painful and sad. Ethically, this is a very tricky area and should not be discussed lightly.)


Many readers who are expecting a happy romantic movie type ending are disappointed by this book, yet some find it realistic, honest and truthful. Paul doesnt fade happily into the sunset with either the emotionally needy and spiritual Miriam or the more physically passionate Clara. He does what a lot of sons would do….gets depressed, maybe even suicidal. Life goes on, as his mother would want it to. Women-wise, he doesn’t love either of them enough to be with them full time, or as deeply or as needily as he did his mother’s company.


So he just sells up, like people do and gets lodgings of his own in town. Clara does not leave her husband to be with him – indeed he helps her back to her husband. Interestingly, in Lawrrence’s own life…. his partner Did leave her husband for him…and her children as well!




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