Heart of Darkness Questions and Answers by Joseph Conrad



Heart of Darkness Questions and Answers by Joseph Conrad



Marks -15

1. Theme of the Novel

Q. Discuss Conrad’s use of the term darkness in the book, including the title. How many different meanings does it have? Do they all essentially have the same meaning in the context of the book? Or are some more symbolic than others?


Q. What is madness like in Heart of Darkness? What brings it on? Is it innate, or does the environment bring it on?


Q. One major theme in the book is imperialism. How is European imperialism portrayed in Heart of Darkness?


Q. Joseph Conrad’s classic Heart of Darkness is densely packed with many themes, some more obvious than others. Imperialism, colonialism, and racism are some of the more readily visible themes. Discuss.

The novella Heart of Darkness was first written in 1899 in a serial form in Blackwood’s magazine, later it was published in 1902 and finally in book form it was published in 1942 in Youth: A Narrative, and Two Other Stories by a great modern novelist, Joseph Conrad.

In 1890 Conrad sailed to the Belgian Congo and he gave his experiences a shape of novella (Heart of Darkness) after a long gap of time. On the surface level, it is like a mystery story, but on an implicit level, it is a journey within, a journey into the subconscious.

It is his one of the best stories which explores the terrifying depths of human corruptibility, social and psychological disorder through the metaphor of a journey to the heart of the African continent. Heart of Darkness in particular, offers a connection between Victorian norms and values and the principles of modernism.

Like their Victorian novelists, this novel relies on tradition as a heroism, which is yet under continuous attack in a changing world. Like much of the best modernist literature produced in the early decades of the twentieth century, Heart of Darkness is much about alienation, confusion, and profound doubt as it is about imperialism.

Joseph Conrad’s works generally deal with the themes of pursuit of meaning in a mysterious world, the separation of self in the new society, and the struggle between civilization and barbarity. In his famous novella Heart of Darkness, he deals with some important themes like, colonialism and its effect, a journey to self-discovery, pretenses of colonialism, and the meaninglessness of evil.

Race and Racism

The subject of racism is not really treated by Conrad as a theme in Heart of Darkness as much as it is simply shown to be the prevailing attitude of the day. The African natives are referred to as “niggers,” “cannibals,” “criminals,” and “savages.” European colonizers see them as a subordinate species and chain, starve, rob, mutilate, and murder them without fear of punishment. The book presents a damning account of imperialism as it illustrates the white man’s belief in his innate right come into a country inhabited by people of a different race and pillage to his heart’s content.

Kurtz is writing a treatise for something called the “International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs.” This implies the existence of a worldwide movement to subjugate all nonwhite races. Kurtz bestows a kind of childlike quality upon the Africans by saying that white people appear to them as supernatural beings. The natives do, indeed, seem to have worshipped Kurtz as a god and to have offered up human sacrifices to him. This innocence proceeds, in Kurtz’s view, from an inferior intelligence and does not prevent him from concluding that the way to deal with the natives is to exterminate them all.

Early in his journey, Marlow sees a group of black men paddling boats. He admires their naturalness, strength, and vitality, and senses that they want nothing from the land but to coexist with it. This notion prompts him to believe that he still belongs to a world of reason.

The feeling is short-lived, however, for it is not long before Marlow, too, comes to see the Africans as some subhuman form of life and to use the language of his day in referring to them as “creatures,” “niggers,” “cannibals,” and “savages.” He does not protest or try to interfere when he sees six Africans forced to work with chains about their necks. He calls what he sees in their eyes the “deathlike indifference of unhappy savages.”

Marlow exhibits some humanity in offering a dying young African one of the ship’s biscuits, and although he regrets the death of his helmsman, he says he was “a savage who was no more account than a grain of sand in a black Sahara.” It is not the man he misses so much as his function as steersman. Marlow refers to the “savage who was fireman” as “an improved specimen.” He compares him, standing before his vertical boiler, to “a dog in a parody of breeches and a feather hat, walking on his hind legs.”

Alienation and Loneliness

Throughout Heart of Darkness, which tells of a journey into the heart of the Belgian Congo and out again, the themes of alienation, loneliness, silence and solitude predominate. The book begins and ends in silence, with men first waiting for a tale to begin and then left to their own thoughts after it has concluded. The question of what the alienation and loneliness of extended periods of time in a remote and hostile environment can do to men’s minds is a central theme of the book.

The doctor who measures Marlow’s head prior to his departure for Africa warns him of changes to his personality that may be produced by a long stay in-country. Prolonged silence and solitude are seen to have damaging effects on many characters in the book.

Among these are the late Captain Fresleven, Marlow’s predecessor, who was transformed from a gentle soul into a man of violence, and the Russian, who has been alone on the River for two years and dresses bizarrely and chatters constantly. But loneliness and alienation have taken their greatest toll on Kurtz, who, cut off from all humanizing influence, has forfeited the restraints of reason and conscience and given free rein to his most base and brutal instincts.


As the crew make their way up the river, they are traveling into the “heart of darkness.” The contradiction, however, is that Marlow also feels as if he were traveling back in time. When Conrad wrote this story, scientists were learning that Africa is the seat of human civilization, and this knowledge is reflected in the fact that the trees are (almost prehistorically) enormous on the route down the river.

The paradox of the novel, however, is that by traveling backwards in time, the crew do not move closer to the innocence and purity of the “noble savage” but farther away from it. Words like “pestilent” and “sordid” are used again and again to describe the natives and their land. Conrad seems to claim that the Christian belief that prehistory was untouched by obscurity or evil is a fallacy. Instead, there is “the horror.” In contrast, it seems, is the more advanced civilization of the colonizers and visitors.

The Hypocrisy of Imperialism

Heart of Darkness explores the issues surrounding imperialism in complicated ways. As Marlow travels from the Outer Station to the Central Station and finally up the river to the Inner Station, he encounters scenes of torture, cruelty, and nearslavery. At the very least, the incidental scenery of the book offers a harsh picture of colonial enterprise. The impetus behind Marlow’s adventures, too, has to do with the hypocrisy inherent in the rhetoric used to justify imperialism.

The men who work for the Company describe what they do as “trade,” and their treatment of native Africans is part of a benevolent project of “civilization.” Kurtz, on the other hand, is open about the fact that he does not trade but rather takes ivory by force, and he describes his own treatment of the natives with the words “suppression” and “extermination”: he does not hide the fact that he rules through violence and intimidation. His perverse honesty leads to his downfall, as his success threatens to expose the evil practices behind European activity in Africa.

However, for Marlow as much as for Kurtz or for the Company, Africans in this book are mostly objects: Marlow refers to his helmsman as a piece of machinery, and Kurtz’s African mistress is at best a piece of statuary. It can be argued that Heart of Darkness participates in an oppression of nonwhites that is much more sinister and much harder to remedy than the open abuses of Kurtz or the Company’s men, Africans become for Marlow a mere backdrop, a human screen against which he can play out his philosophical and existential struggles.

Their existence and their exoticism enable his self-contemplation. This kind of dehumanization is harder to identify than colonial violence or open racism. While Heart of Darkness offers a powerful condemnation of the hypocritical operations of imperialism, it also presents a set of issues surrounding race that is ultimately troubling.

Madness as a Result of Imperialism

Madness is closely linked to imperialism in this book. Africa is responsible for mental disintegration as well as physical illness. Madness has two primary functions. First, it serves as an ironic device to engage the reader’s sympathies. Kurtz, Marlow is told from the beginning, is mad.

However, as Marlow, and the reader, begin to form a more complete picture of Kurtz, it becomes apparent that his madness is only relative, that in the context of the Company insanity is difficult to define. Thus, both Marlow and the reader begin to sympathize with Kurtz and view the Company with suspicion. Madness also functions to establish the necessity of social fictions.

Although social mores and explanatory justifications are shown throughout Heart of Darkness to be utterly false and even leading to evil, they are nevertheless necessary for both group harmony and individual security. Madness, in Heart of Darkness, is the result of being removed from one’s social context and allowed to be the sole arbiter of one’s own actions. Madness is thus linked not only to absolute power and a kind of moral genius but to man’s fundamental fallibility: Kurtz has no authority to whom he answers but himself, and this is more than any one man can bear.


Deception, or hypocrisy, is a central theme of the novel and is explored on many levels. In the disguise of a “noble cause,” the Belgians have exploited the Congo. Actions taken in the name of philanthropy are merely covers for greed. Claiming to educate the natives, to bring them religion and a better way of life, European colonizers remained to starve, mutilate, and murder the indigenous population for profit. Marlow has even obtained his captaincy through deception, for his aunt misrepresented him as “an exceptional and gifted creature.”

She also presented him as “one of the Workers, with a capital [W] … something like an emissary of light, something like a lower sort of apostle,” and Conrad notes the deception in elevating working people to some mystical status they can not realistically obtain. At the end of the book, Marlow engages in his own deception when he tells Kurtz’s fiancée the lie that Kurtz died with her name on his lips.


Nothing in this novella is described in very concrete terms. Shores are hazy. Land looks like a spine sticking out from a man’s back but is not described in topographical terms. Marlow is obsessed with Kurtz before he even meets him, without a clear idea why. A sense of danger pervades the entire trip, and it is mostly dictated by uncertainty. The natives do not seem inherently threatening. On one occasion, they let fly a series of arrows, but these even look ineffectual to Marlow.

They are threatening because they might be poisoned. Similarly, Marlow has no clear idea of what the natives might do to him if Kurtz gave them free rein, and it is possible that this uncertainty increases his fear. Kurtz himself is an uncertain figure, ruled as he is by two separate impulses, the noble and the destructive. At the beginning of the novella, the reader perceives that the former is his dominant (or only) characteristic.

But with vicious scrawlings on his manuscript and his ruthlessness in extracting ivory from the land, Kurtz proves himself the latter. Marlow’s adherence to Kurtz until the end confuses the matter; one could judge him one way or the other. The idea of “darkness” expresses the theme of uncertainty in the novella.

The Absurdity of Evil

This novella is, above all, an exploration of hypocrisy, ambiguity, and moral confusion. It explodes the idea of the proverbial choice between the lesser of two evils. As the idealistic Marlow is forced to align himself with either the hypocritical and malicious colonial bureaucracy or the openly malevolent, rule-defying Kurtz, it becomes increasingly clear that to try to judge either alternative is an act of folly: how can moral standards or social values be relevant judging evil?

Is there such a thing as insanity in a world that has already gone insane? The number of ridiculous situations Marlow witnesses act as reflections of the larger issue: at one station, for instance, he sees a man trying to carry water in a bucket with a large hole in it. At the Outer Station, he watches native laborers blast away at a hillside with no particular goal in mind. The absurd involves both insignificant silliness and life-ordeath issues, often simultaneously.

That the serious and the mundane are treated similarly suggests a profound moral confusion and a tremendous hypocrisy: it is terrifying that Kurtz’s homicidal megalomania and a leaky bucket provoke essentially the same reaction from Marlow.


Although there is controversy over whether Conrad is critiquing colonialism or not, it is clear that he is critiquing religion. The two groups in the novel, the pilgrims and the natives, are linked by having religious beliefs, and the pilgrims seem at least as bloodthirsty as the natives. The rite in the woods that Marlow describes seems alien but certainly no more dangerous than the ambush.

One of the seemingly admirable characteristics of Kurtz, as presented by Conrad, is that he seems just as compelled by African religion as by Christianity but seems beholden to neither. Marlow genuinely admires his ability to independently critique religions. He may not agree with Kurtz’s evaluation, but he respects Kurtz’s ability to have his own opinions in the face of the various religious traditions he encounters.

Conrad sounds the themes of order and disorder in showing, primarily through the example of the Company’s chief clerk, how people can carry on with the most mundane details of their lives while all around them chaos reigns. In the larger context, the Company attends to the details of sending agents into the interior to trade with the natives and collect ivory while remaining oblivious to the devastation such acts have caused. Yet on a closer look, the Company’s Manager has no talent for order or organization.

His station is in a deplorable state, and Marlow can see no reason for the Manager to have his position other than the fact that he is never ill. On the other hand, the chief clerk is so impeccably dressed that when Marlow first meets him he thinks he is a vision. This man, who has been in-country three years and witnessed all its attendant horrors, manages to keep his clothes and books in excellent order. He even speaks with confidence of a Council of Europe which intended Kurtz to go far in “the administration,” as if there is some overall rational principle guiding their lives.


Several images throughout Heart of Darkness suggest the futility of European presence in Africa. The first such image Marlow witnesses off the West African coast, where a French warship fires pointlessly at an invisible enemy. Another image appears later, at the Central Station, when Marlow watches as frantic Europeans pointlessly attempt to extinguish a burning grass hut.

In addition to these instances of useless action, Marlow takes note of pointless labor practices at the Company Station. There he observes white Europeans forcing Africans to blast a hole through a cliff for no apparent reason. He also nearly falls into a random hole in the ground that slave laborers dug. Marlow speculates that the hole has no purpose other than to occupy the slaves:

“It might have been connected with the philanthropic desire of giving the criminals something to do.” As with the examples of the warship and the grass hut, the grossly inefficient labor practices at the Company Station suggest the pointlessness of the European mission in Africa.


Jewelry is a major presence in Heart of kness. To begin with, it is the main reason for the presence of the colonists in Africa: they are there to strip the country of its ivory. There is a play on colors between the black people and this white valuable good. The most prestigious member of the African community and one of the only characters to be afforded individual characteristics by Conrad is the woman who is presumably Kurtz’s mistress. Her first appearance is impressive; she is covered in bangles and other “barbarous ornaments.”

Her aspect has both attractiveness and ferocity, and she is the only character in the novella who wears jewelry. Despite it being the raison d’être of the novella, the other characters have little interest in jewelry, showing an almost Marxist detachment from the good they harvest.

Contradiction and Ambivalence

Contradictions appear everywhere in Heart of Darkness, and particularly with Order and Disorder respect to European characters, who serve as living embodiments of imperialism. For example, Marlow insists that Fresleven, the Danish captain he replaced, was completely harmless, but he also describes how the man ended up in a violent dispute over hens and died at the end of an African’s spear.

European imperial missions sought to civilize “savage” peoples and hence appeared pure in their intentions, but all too often they inflicted terrible violence instead. The accountant Marlow meets at the Company Station provides another important example of contradiction. Despite the filth and chaos that reigns at the station, the accountant maintains an immaculately clean suit and perfectly coiffed hair.

Marlow respects the man for maintaining a semblance of civility even in the wilderness. Such an image of civilization in the jungle or of light in the darkness-represents another contradiction of the European civilizing mission.

Contradictions also abound in Marlow’s outlook on colonialism, as well as in his ambivalent views on life. He opens his story by describing his belief in the “idea” of colonialism, yet he goes on to tell a long story about the horrors of the Belgian mission in the Congo. The evident contradiction between the idea of colonialism and its reality doesn’t seem to bother Marlow. A similar tension affects Marlow’s treatment of Africans. He finds it repulsive that Europeans mistreat African laborers at the stations along the river. However, Marlow fails to see Africans as equals.

When he laments the loss of his late helmsman, he describes the man as “a savage” and “an instrument,” yet he insists that the two men had “a kind of partnership.” Marlow remains unaware of the contradiction in his description. A further contradiction permeates the grim outlook that Marlow expresses near the novella’s end, when he describes life as “that mysterious arrangement of merciless logic for a futile purpose.” According to Marlow, life is at once full of “merciless logic” and yet has a completely “futile purpose”-that is, it is at once meaningful and meaningless.

Sanity and Insanity

Closely linked to the themes of order and disorder are those of sanity and insanity. Madness, given prolonged exposure to the isolation of the wilderness, seems an inevitable extension of chaos. The atmospheric influences at the heart of the African continent-the stifling heat, the incessant drums, the whispering bush, the mysterious light-play havoc with the unadapted European mind and reduce it either to the insanity of thinking anything is allowable in such an atmosphere or, as in Kurtz’s case, to literal madness.

Kurtz, after many years in the jungle, is presented as a man who has gone mad with power and greed. No restraints were placed on him-either from above, from a rule of law, or from within, from his own conscience. In the wilderness, he came to believe he was free to do whatever he liked, and the freedom drove him mad. Small acts of madness line Marlow’s path to Kurtz:

the Man-of-War that fires into the bush for no apparent reason, the urgently needed rivets that never arrive, the bricks that will never be built, the jig that is suddenly. danced, the immense hole dug for no discernible purpose. All these events ultimately lead to a row of impaled severed human heads and Kurtz, a man who, in his insanity, has conferred a godlike status on himself and has ritual human sacrifices performed for him.

The previously mentioned themes of solitude and silence have here achieved their most powerful effect: they have driven Kurtz mad. He is presented as a voice, a disembodied head, a mouth that opens as if to devour everything before him. Kurtz speaks of “my ivory … my intended… my river… my station,” as if everything in the Congo belonged to him. This is the final arrogant insanity of the white man who comes supposedly to improve a land, but stays to exploit, ravage, and destroy it.


Throughout his journey, Marlow meets an array of people characterized by their hollow emptiness, reflecting the way imperialism robbed Europeans of moral substance. For instance, Marlow refers to the chatty brickmaker he meets at the Central Station as a “papier-mâché Mephistopheles” who has “nothing inside but a little loose dirt, maybe.” Despite having a lot to say, the brickmaker’s words lack any real meaning or value.

Like a nut without the kernel inside an image the narrator describes at the beginning of the novella-the brickmaker’s speech is all form and no content, revealing his obvious idleness. Marlow speaks of Kurtz in similar terms. He describes the African wilderness whispering to Kurtz: “It echoed loudly within him because he was hollow at the core.” Marlow comes to this realization of Kurtz’s emptiness after observing the severed African heads on stakes, placed there for no apparent reason.

Like the brickmaker, Kurtz is showy with his talk but ultimately doesn’t have much reason, since all his ideas are morally bankrupt. Marlow develops this notion of Kurtz as a hollow man later in the story. Although he continues to speak forcefully, Kurtz’s physical body wastes away, making the man a “hollow sham,” or imitation, of his former self.

Duty and Responsibility

As is true of all other themes in the book, those of duty and responsibility are glimpsed on many levels. On a national level, we are told of the British devotion to duty and efficiency that led to systematic colonization of large parts of the globe and has its counterpart in Belgian colonization of the Congo, the book’s focus. On an individual level, Conrad weaves the themes of duty and responsibility through Marlow’s job as captain, a position that makes him responsible for his crew and bound to his duties as the boat’s commander.

There are also the jobs of those with whom Marlow comes into contact on his journey. In Heart of Darkness, duty and responsibility revolve most often about how one does one’s work. A job well done is respected; simply doing the work one is responsible for is an honorable act. Yet Conrad does not believe in romanticizing the worker.

Workers can often be engaged in meaningless tasks, as illustrated in the scene where the Africans blast away at the rock face in order to build a railway, but the rock is not altered by the blasts and the cliff is not at all in the way. The Company’s Manager would seem to have a duty to run his business efficiently, but he cannot keep order, and although he is obeyed, he is not respected.

The Foreman, however, earns Marlow’s respect for being a good worker. Marlow admires the way the Foreman ties up his waist-length beard when he has to crawl in the mud beneath the steamboat to do his job. (Having a waist-length beard in a jungle environment can be seen as another act of madness, even from an efficient worker.) Section I of the novel ends with Marlow speculating on how Kurtz would do his work. But there is a larger sense in which the themes of work and responsibility figure.

Marlow says, “I don’t like work-no man does-but I like what is in the workthe chance to find yourself.” It is through the work (or what passes for it) that Kurtz does in Africa that his moral bankruptcy is revealed. For himself, Marlow emerges with a self-imposed duty to remain loyal to Kurtz, and it is this responsibility that finally forces him to lie to Kurtz’s fiancée.

Moral Corruption

The book’s theme of moral corruption is the one to which, like streams to a river, all others lead. Racism, madness, loneliness, deception and disorder, doubt and ambiguity, violence and cruelty-culminate in the moral corruption revealed by Kurtz’s acts in the Congo. Kurtz has cast off reason and allowed his most base and brutal instincts to rule unrestrained.

He has permitted the evil within him to gain the upper hand. Kurtz’s appalling moral corruption is the result not only of external forces, such as the isolation and loneliness imposed by the jungle, but also, Conrad suggests, of forces that lie within all men and await the chance to emerge. Kurtz perhaps realizes the depth of his own moral corruption when, as he lays dying, he utters, “The horror! The horror!”

Marlow feels this realization transferred to himself and understands that he too, living in a lawless state, is capable of sinking into the depths of moral corruption The savage nature of man is thus reached at the end of the journey, not upriver, but into his own soul.

One prime theme of Conrad in Heart of Darkness is colonialism and its effect on the Whites and the nonwhites. In the narration of Marlow, Conrad mentions the Roman conquest and thereby establishes the truth that colonialism existed since the early period of human civilization. In the novel, Kurtz, who is extremely hungry for the power and position, colonizes the interior of Africa called Congo.

An individual’s lust for wealth and possession, and a desire to suppress others can create colonialism. In the name of civilizing and educating the natives, Kurtz is exercising his immense power to dominate them: physically, economically, and even sexually. He justifies his deed under the cover saying that he is bringing light in the lives of savages, but the irony is that he is overshadowed by the darkness of his own self, the primitive self.

The two symbols that the narrator mentions ‘the sword’ and ‘the torch’ refer to the ruthless force and the denial of the native culture by the pseudo light of civilization. Marlow’s aunt has an idealistic opinion of imperialism. She is pleased and overjoyed thinking that she has become one part of the mission of civilization by sending Marlow as a ‘worker’ to the service of the trading Company. She is of the opinion that the major objective of the colonization is to civilize the nonwhites of the interior of Africa.

Another equally important theme is a journey to self-discovery. Heart of Darkness is undoubtedly the story of a journey within. Marlow’s journey and Kurtz’s journey to Congo, and African Country is basically a journey to the Congo of our mind. Literally speaking both Kurtz and Marlow reached Congo at different times in their life. The novel narrates the journey to Congo. By narrating the outer journey to Congo the novelist indirectly hints at the inner Journey.

It is said that everyone carries within him/her own Congo. As an outer Congo is full of fear, terror, savagery and forces of temptation, so is our Congo full of dark forces. To reach the bottom-line of our inner Congo it is, according to Conrad, necessary to make an outer journey to literal Congo. Our Congo is a manifestation of inner Congo. By reaching a geographic Congo by making an outer journey, it is possible to reach the center of our inner Congo. Kurtz descended into the subconscious.

But he failed to take control of it. He failed to handle the operation of dark forces from the level of his subconscious. Kurtz unconsciously descended into the realm of the subconscious. That is why he can’t return from it. On the contrary, Kurtz was devoured by the dark forces in the subconscious. Marlowe’s journey within is somewhat different. Unlike Kurtz Marlow descended into the subconscious with full awareness with a strict sense of self restraint and with a sense of unflinching and unwavering loyalty to a standard of norm.

That is why he did not become a puppet in the hand of subconscious forces. He made an inner journey cautiously because he had made a cautious outer journey to Congo. Due to his durable moral goodness, Marlow even tried to save Kurtz from his inner malaise.

Conrad blends many of his recurrent themes in Heart of Darkness. Chief among them are the education of a young man in search of the meaning of self and society in an ambiguous universe, the solitary and necessary reliance upon self, the oppositions of the values of civilization and savagery as well as their intersections, and the oppositions of appearance and reality and of innocence and experience replete with the tensions inherent in those eroding oppositions that blur at times into sameness.

In blending all of these themes into his narrative Conrad also molds them into his habitual and overarching theme of tale-telling, the communication of experience and a sense of reality, the ruminations of a narrator attempting to sort out reality so that his listeners may see it, and the power and imperfections of language as the instrument of thought.

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