1) What does the poet mean by “shall I compare thee to a summer’s day ?”


       The poet wants to compare his friend’s beauty to a lovely day of summer. The Poet made the comparison  to emphasize upon beauty. A summer’s day is graceful and charming. The poet’s friend is also attractive in his beauty.


2) What does the poet mean by “thou art more lovely and more temperate”?


      The very word ‘temperate’ means equable-neither too cold nor too hot. The word ‘temperate’ also means sweet, lovable, or soothing. The analogy leads the poet to the assertion that his friend’s beauty is much attractive, charming, and impressive. The poet contends that his friend’s beauty is ever temperate. 


3)What does the poet mean by “summer’s lease”?


       ‘Summer’s lease’ means the period for which the season of summer has the right to stay. The image of lease belongs to the field of law- indicates tenancy.


4) Explain the line “Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May”.


        In summer, the high wind often damages the lovely beauty of the little buds of May. The buds of May are sweet and tender. But the hard gale of summer sheds the loved buds of roses of May now and then in such a way to present the growth. The image suggests the early death of young love blighted{destroyed} by some greater force. The poet refers to here the destructive touch of time.



5) “Summer’s lease hath all too short a date “How does the poet substantiate his Views?


         Summer is a season of beauty but it is also for a limited period. Lovely natural sights also disappear with the passing of the season. The poet says that it is so short that the sweet buds of May even cannot bloom fully because  the violent storm shakes them.


6) What does the poet mean by “sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines”?


        The poet goes to prove his assertion – ‘thou art more lovely and more temperate’. Here, the eye of heaven stands for the sun, which grows occasionally extremely hot, becomes scorching rather than pleasing.


7)What is meant by “nature’s changing course untrimmed”?


         ‘Nature changing course’ means the transitions and the alterations which take place as a matter of routine. ‘untrimmed ‘means spoilt by the normal course of seasons .’Trim’ means adorn or dress. In summer, nature is dressed in beauty. But the change of seasons spoils the beautiful dress of nature. Every beautiful thing or person loses external beauty or glamour because of the accidental decay.


8)What is meant by “gold complexion dimmed “?


          The term ‘gold complexion’ indicates the gold-colored face of the sun – the sun’s brightness. Here, the poet says that the beauty of the sun is not as pleasant and steady as that of his friend because the sun’s brightness sometimes is dimmed. 


9) What does the poet mean by “every fair from fair sometime declines “? 


           The poet, while comparing the beauty of his friend to that of a summer day, comments that every fair element of nature loses its beauty in course of time. Here, the word ‘fair is used for a dual purpose – the first ‘fair’ refers to a beautiful person or fair person and the second ‘fair’ means fairness or beauty. The poet here refers to the destructive power of time in the changing natural world. The inevitable ravage of time is perceived in the world of nature. Even, the lovely natural elements of summer lose their prime of beauty under the impact of the cruel hand of time


10) What does ‘eternal summer ‘mean?


      ‘ Eternal summer’ means everlasting beauty. Here, the unfading beauty of the poet’s friend is suggested. 


 11) How is its summer eternal?

The eternal summer of the poet’s friend is suggested here. ‘summer’ means beauty. The poet opines that his friend’s beauty is eternal, as it is not subjected to death and decay.


 12) Why shall the eternal summer not fade?

 The beauty of the poet’s friend is not subject to mutability that characterizes all earthly things. It defies the destructive time. It shall never fade because it will be given on the eternal lease of life by Shakespeare’s sonnet – sequence. The youth’s summer is not eternal in itself, but only so far as it is caught and preserved in shakes pear’s verses.


13) What is meant by his shade’?

‘His shade’ means the dark realm of death. Death is referred to here by ‘ his’.



14) What does the line mean “wanderest in his shade”.?


The poet means by the line that death will not be able to capture his friend and rob him of his beauty.



15) Why does the poet say that “death shall not brag thou”?


        Death shall not brag because the beauty of the poet’s friend will never die as it is preserved in Shakespeare’s sonnet-sequence. The poet is confident that his friend’s beauty is eternal.



16) what does the poet mean by ‘Eternal lines’?

By ‘Eternal lines’ means poetry which remains eternal throughout the ages.


17) What does the poet mean by ‘to time thou growest.? 


The -poet means that his fair friend will not decay but grow ever with time through the deathless lines of the poet. The poet’s friend passes from the limited span of individual life to eternity.


18) What will give life to whom and how .?


The sonnet, written by Shakespeare, will give life to his friend. The sonnet celebrating his friend’s beauty will confer immortality on him.


19) What message does the poet communicate here.?


The poet wants to express that his friend’s beauty will be immortalized in his poetry. He asserts in a challenging way that the beauty of his friend will be going on alone with the existence of his poetry.





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